Butterflies are a chiefly diurnal group of the order Lepidoptera (which also includes moths). Adults have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. The group comprise the true butterflies (superfamily Papilionoidea), the skippers (superfamily Hesperioidea) and the moth-butterflies (superfamily Hedyloidea). All the many other families within the Lepidoptera are referred to as moths. The earliest known butterfly fossils date to the mid Eocene epoch, 40–50 million years ago.
Butterflies exhibit polymorphism, mimicry and aposematism. Some, like the Monarch, will migrate over long distances. Some butterflies have evolved symbiotic and parasitic relationships with social insects such as ants. Some species are pests because in their larval stages they can damage domestic crops or trees; however, some species are agents of pollination of some plants, and caterpillars of a few butterflies (e.g., Harvesters) eat harmful insects. Culturally, butterflies are a popular motif in the visual and literary arts.
Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. For example, insulating a home allows a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a comfortable temperature. Installing fluorescent lights or natural skylights reduces the amount of energy required to attain the same level of illumination compared with using traditional incandescent light bulbs. Compact fluorescent lights use one-third the energy of incandescent lights and may last 6 to 10 times longer. Improvements in energy efficiency are generally achieved by adopting a more efficient technology or production processes or by application of commonly accepted methods to reduce energy losses.
There are many motivations to improve energy efficiency. Reducing energy use reduces energy costs and may result in a financial cost saving to consumers if the energy savings offset any additional costs of implementing an energy efficient technology. Reducing energy use is also seen as a solution to the problem of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. According to the International Energy Agency, improved energy efficiency in buildings, industrial processes and transportation could reduce the world’s energy needs in 2050 by one third, and help control global emissions of greenhouse gases.
Pellet fuels are heating fuels made from compressed biomass. Wood pellets are the most common type. A form of wood fuel, wood pellets are generally made from compacted sawdust or other wastes from sawmilling and other wood products manufacture,. Other woody biomass sources include palm kernel shell, coconut shell, and whole-tree removal or tree tops and branches leftover after logging and which otherwise help replenish soil nutrients. As well grasses can also be pelletized, creating grass pellets. Pellets are manufactured in several types and grades as fuels for electric power plants, homes, and other applications in between. Pellets are extremely dense and can be produced with a low moisture content (below 10%) that allows them to be burned with a very high combustion efficiency.
Further, their regular geometry and small size allow automatic feeding with very fine calibration. They can be fed to a burner by auger feeding or by pneumatic conveying. Their high density also permits compact storage and rational transport over long distance. They can be conveniently blown from a tanker to a storage bunker or silo on a customer’s premises.
A broad range of pellet stoves, central heating furnaces, and other heating appliances have been developed and marketed since 1993. In 1997 fully automatic wood pellet boilers with similar comfort level as oil and gas boilers became available in Austria. With the surge in the price of fossil fuels since 2005, the demand for pellet heating has increased in Europe and North America, and a sizable industry is emerging. According to the International Energy Agency Task 40, wood pellet production has more than doubled between 2006 and 2010 to over 14 million tons. In a 2012 report, the Biomass Energy Resource Center says that it expects wood pellet production in North America to double again in the next five years.
The Indian Navy is a well-balanced and cohesive three-dimensional force, capable of operating above, on and under the surface of the oceans, efficiently safeguarding our national interests.
The Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS) exercises operational and administrative control of the Indian Navy from the Integrated Headquarters of Ministry of Defence (Navy). He is assisted by the Vice Chief of the Naval Staff (VCNS) and three other Principal Staff Officers, namely the Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff (DCNS), the Chief of Personnel (COP) and the Chief of Material (COM).
The Navy has the following three Commands, each under the control of a Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief:-
- The Western Naval Command (Headquarters at Mumbai).
- The Eastern Naval Command (Headquarters at Visakhapatnam)
- The Southern Naval Command (Headquarters at Kochi)
The Western and the Eastern Naval Commands are ‘Operational Commands’, and exercise control over operations in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal respectively. The Southern Command is the Training Command.
The cutting edge of the Indian Navy are its two Fleets, namely the Western Fleet, based at Mumbai and the Eastern Fleet, based at Visakhapatnam. Besides the Fleets, there is a Flotilla each, based at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam and Port Blair (A & N Islands), that provide Local Naval Defence in their respective regions. Naval ships are also based at other ports along the East and the West coasts of India and the island territories, thus ensuring continued naval presence in the areas of national interest. Further, there are various Naval Officer-in-Charges (NOICs), under each Command, responsible for the Local Naval Defence of ports under their respective jurisdictions.
The defence of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands is a joint responsibility of all the three services and is coordinated by the Headquarters, Andaman & Nicobar Command, located at PortBlair. This is the only Tri-ServicesCommand in the Indian Armed Forces and is headed by a Commander-in-Chief, as appointedin rotation from the three Services. The Local Naval Defence of the Lakshadweep group of islands is the responsibility of the Naval Officer-in-Charge, Lakshadweep.
The National Defence Academy is an iconic institution and hallmark of global excellence in the sphere of military education. Over the years it has emerged as a unique military academy, attracting the best of youth from our nation and also from friendly foreign countries and transforming them into officers and gentlemen. During the last six decades of its glorious existence, the National Defence Academy has grown both in grace and grandeur and from its portals have emerged ‘Leaders of Men’, who have demonstrated the essence of inter-services camaraderie and jointmanship thereby vindicating the faith and vision of its founding fathers. Apart from leaders of men, the alumni have proved to be great mountaineers, cosmonauts, sportsmen, researchers, creative writers, artists, corporate honchos and more recently, olympic champions. Their achievements are all pervading and showcased in every echelon of our Armed Forces and also in the civil society. The ‘Cradle’ has indeed rocked the nascent youth and groomed them into ‘Leaders’ who have lived up to its ethos: ‘Seva Paramo Dharma’ (Service Before Self).
The objective of training, in essence, is to impart academic and technological training of the highest quality in order to equip cadets with appropriate qualification as foundation for their service careers. Conduct focused training to enable cadets to achieve the requisite physical and endurance standards, with proficiency in troop games. To inculcate in cadets the qualities of leadership, a desire for self improvement and a drive to excel in every sphere. Incorporate culture of jointmanship in training and promote spirit of jointmanship in thought, word and deed. Conduct high quality basic military training service and technological training to enable cadets to have a strong foundation in their service careers. Hone the skills of cadets to articulate their thoughts coherently, concisely and clearly, both in speech and writing. Emphasis on overall personality development of a cadet by inculcating a sense of self-descipline, honour, integrity, duty, camaraderie and sense of pride.
The endeavour at the Academy has been to continuously upgrade the training methodologies and infrastructure with a view to provide training conforming to standards laid down by the COSC. With the synergetic approach, the Academy has been fulfilling this onerous task.
The Indian Air Force was officially established on 8 October 1932.Its first ac flight came into being on 01 Apr 1933. It possessed a strength of six RAF-trained officers and 19 Havai Sepoys (literally, air soldiers). The aircraft inventory comprised of four Westland Wapiti IIA army co-operation biplanes at Drigh Road as the “A” Flight nucleus of the planned No.1 (Army Co- operation) Squadron.
Cutting its teeth
Four-and-a-half years later, “A” Flight was in action for the first time from Miranshah, in North Waziristan, to support Indian Army operations against insurgent Bhittani tribesmen. Meanwhile, in April 1936, a “B” Flight had also been formed on the vintage Wapiti. But, it was not until June 1938 that a “C” Flight was raised to bring No. 1 Squadron ostensibly to full strength, and this remained the sole IAF formation when World War II began, although personnel strength had by now risen to 16 officers and 662 men.
Problems concerning the defence of India were reassessed in 1939 by the Chatfield Committee. It proposed the re-equipment of RAF (Royal Air Force) squadrons based in lndia but did not make any suggestions for the accelerating the then painfully slow growth of IAF except for a scheme to raise five flights on a voluntary basis to assist in the defence of the principal ports. An IAF Volunteer Reserve was thus authorised, although equipping of the proposed Coastal Defence Flights (CDFs) was somewhat inhibited by aircraft availability. Nevertheless, five such flights were established with No. 1 at Madras, No. 2 at Bombay, No. 3 at Calcutta, No. 4 at Karachi and No. 5 at Cochin. No. 6 was later formed at Vizagapatanam. Built up around a nucleus of regular IAF and RAF personnel, these flights were issued with both ex-RAF Wapitis and those relinquished by No. 1 Squadron IAF after its conversion to the Hawker Hart. In the event, within a year, the squadron was to revert back to the Wapiti because of spares shortages, the aged Westland biplanes being supplemented by a flight of Audaxes.
At the end of March 1941, Nos. 1 and 3 CDFs gave up their Wapitis which were requisitioned to equip No. 2 Squadron raised at Peshawar in the following month, and were instead issued with Armstrong Whitworth Atalanta transports, used to patrol the Sunderbans delta area south of Calcutta. No. 2 CDF had meanwhile received requisitioned D.H. 89 Dragon Rapides for convoy and coastal patrol, while No. 5 CDF took on strength a single D.H. 86 which it used to patrol the west of Cape Camorin and the Malabar Coast.
Meanwhile the creation of a training structure in India became imperative and RAF flying instructors were assigned to flying clubs to instruct IAF Volunteer Reserve cadets on Tiger Moths.364 pupils were to receive elementary flying training at seven clubs in British India and two in various princely States by the end of 1941. Some comparative modernity was infused in August 1941, when No. 1 Squadron began conversion to the Westland Lysander at Drigh Road, the Unit being presented with a full establishment of 12 Lysanders at Peshawar by the Bombay War Gifts Fund in the following November. No. 2 Squadron had converted from the Wapiti to the Audax in September 1941 and, on 1 October No. 3 Squadron, similarly Audax-equipped, was raised at Peshawar.
The IAF VR was now inducted into the regular IAF, the individual flights initially retaining their coastal defence status, but with Japan’s entry into the war in December, No. 4 Flight, with four Wapitis and two Audaxes, was despatched to Burma to operate from Moulmein. Unfortunately, four of the flight’s six aircraft were promptly lost to Japanese bombing and, late in January 1942, No. 4 Flight gave place in Moulmein to No. 3 Flight which had meanwhile re-equipped with four ex-RAF Blenheim ls. For a month, these Blenheims were to provide almost the sole air cover for ships arriving at Rangoon harbour.